# Accounting Equation Assets = Liabilities + Equity

The accounting equation is essential since it enables an assessment of the accuracy of recording business transactions carried on by the individual or the company in all relevant books and accounts. This makes it possible to accurately assess the financial position of any business via its balance sheet. The balance sheet is one of the three main financial statements that depicts a company’s assets, liabilities, and equity sections at a specific point in time (i.e. a “snapshot”). For a company keeping accurate accounts, every business transaction will be represented in at least two of its accounts. For instance, if a business takes a loan from a bank, the borrowed money will be reflected in its balance sheet as both an increase in the company’s assets and an increase in its loan liability. Using the numbers from the Edelweiss Corporation’s balance sheet, we can see the accounting equation has been properly used, with assets equal to total liabilities plus equity.

• Often, a company may depreciate capital assets in 5–7 years, meaning that the assets will show on the books as less than their “real” value, or what they would be worth on the secondary market.
• The only equity is Sam’s capital (i.e., owner’s equity amounting to \$100,000).
• Editorial content from The Ascent is separate from The Motley Fool editorial content and is created by a different analyst team.
• You may have made a journal entry where the debits do not match the credits.
• The accounting equation helps to assess whether the business transactions carried out by the company are being accurately reflected in its books and accounts.
• T Accounts are informal financial records used by a company as part of the double-entry bookkeeping process.

Because the Alphabet, Inc. calculation shows that the basic accounting equation is in balance, it’s correct. A screenshot of Alphabet Inc Consolidated Balance Sheets from its 10-K annual report filing with the SEC for the year ended December 31, 2021, follows. As our example, we compute the accounting equation from the company’s balance sheet as of December 31, 2021. Accounting equation is also called balance sheet equation and fundamental accounting equation. A debit refers to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability or shareholders’ equity. A credit in contrast refers to a decrease in an asset or an increase in a liability or shareholders’ equity.

## What is included in assets and liabilities in an accounting equation?

As you can see below, this simultaneous debit and credit has a zero net effect and leaves the final https://kelleysbookkeeping.com/ balanced. When this transaction takes place, furniture is added, and cash is reduced. This simultaneous debit and credit of assets have a zero net effect, and the accounting equation remains balanced. The retained earnings statement is a bridge between the income statement and the balance sheet. The net income amount that appears on the retained earnings statement comes from the income statement (\$13,000 in the sample above). The ending retained earnings balance (\$40,000 in the sample above) feeds to the stockholders’ equity section of the balance sheet.

The Accounting Equation is a fundamental accounting principle that states that the total assets of a business are equal to the sum of its liabilities and owner’s equity. The accounting equation states that the total assets of the individual or the business equals the sum of the liabilities and equity. In the case of an individual, the total assets equal the sum of liabilities and owners equity, whereas in the case of a company, the sum of assets equals the sum of liabilities and stockholders equity. The accounting equation formula is based on the double-entry bookkeeping and accounting system. Debits and credits are equal when recording business transactions and preparing financial statements.

## How is an Accounting Equation Formed and What Does it Mean?

Metro Courier, Inc., was organized as a corporation on January 1, the company issued shares (10,000 shares at \$3 each) of common stock for \$30,000 cash to Ron Chaney, his wife, and their son. On 10 January, Sam Enterprises sells merchandise for \$10,000 cash and earns a profit of \$1,000. As a result of this transaction, an asset (i.e., cash) increases by \$10,000 while another asset ( i.e., merchandise) decreases by \$9,000 . At this point, let’s consider another example and see how various transactions affect the amounts of the elements in the accounting equation. Creditors have preferential rights over the assets of the business, and so it is appropriate to place liabilities before the capital or owner’s equity in the equation.

For all recorded transactions, if the total debits and credits for a transaction are equal, then the result is that the company’s assets are equal to the sum of its liabilities and equity. Current assets include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, inventory, and prepaid assets. Current liabilities are short-term financial obligations payable in cash within a year. Current liabilities include accounts payable, accrued expenses, and the short-term portion of debt. The two have absolutely no correlation except for the word equation.

## What is included in shareholders equity in an accounting equation?

Shareholder Equity is equal to a business’s total assets minus its total liabilities. It can be found on a balance sheet and is one of the most important metrics for analysts to assess the financial health of a company. This equation should be supported by the information on a company’s balance sheet. The Accounting Equation is the foundation of double-entry accounting because it displays that all assets are financed by borrowing money or paying with the money of the business’s shareholders. Profit is such an important concept in business that two financial statements are devoted to talking about it. The income statement reports net income for one period, such as a month or a year.

We will increase the expense account Utility Expense and decrease the asset Cash. We will increase the expense account Salaries Expense and decrease the asset account Cash. Metro Corporation collected a total of \$5,000 on account from clients who owned money for services previously billed. The corporation received \$50,000 in cash for services provided to clients. We want to decrease the liability Accounts Payable and decrease the asset cash since we are not buying new supplies but paying for a previous purchase.

## 7.3 Retained Earnings Statement

The fundamental components of the accounting equation include the calculation of both company holdings and company debts; thus, it allows owners to gauge the total value of a firm’s assets. The accounting equation helps to assess whether the business transactions carried out by the company are being accurately reflected in its books and accounts. This straightforward relationship between assets, liabilities, and equity is considered to be the foundation of the double-entry accounting system. The accounting equation ensures that the balance sheet remains balanced. That is, each entry made on the debit side has a corresponding entry on the credit side. The accounting equation states that a company’s total assets are equal to the sum of its liabilities and its shareholders’ equity.

The balance sheet is also known as the statement of financial position and it reflects the accounting equation. The balance sheet reports a company’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s (or stockholders’) equity at a specific point in time. Like the accounting equation, it shows that a company’s total amount of assets equals the total amount of liabilities plus owner’s (or stockholders’) equity. An accounting equation is a way of displaying that the company’s total assets are equal to the sum of its liabilities and the capital, i.e. equity held by the owners/shareholders. The double-entry accounting system is designed to make sure that assets will always be equal to liabilities + owner’s equity.